Ирэн Фишер

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Айрин Фишер

Irene Fischer
Irene Kaminka Fischer.jpg
Дата рождения 27 июля 1907 года
Место рождения Вена, Австро-Венгрия
Дата смерти 22 октября 2009 года
Место смерти Бостон, США












Ирэн Каминка Фишер (англ. Irene Kaminka Fischer) — американский математик и геодезист[1].

[править] Биография

Родилась 27 июля 1907 года в Вене в семье раввина.

Изучала геометрию в Венском техническом университете и математику в Венском университете.

В 1931 году вышла замуж за историка и географа Эрика Фишера. У пары родилось двое детей.

В 1939 году бежала из Австрии, и в 1941 году поселилась в Бостоне.

Работала над картографией.

Была избрана в Национальную инженерную академию США.

Умер 22 октября 2009 года в Бостоне.

[править] Труды

  • Fischer, Irene. 2006. «Racing Against Time.» American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Bulletin. Volume 220, pages 38-48.
  • Fischer, Irene K. 2006. «Catch 22 and a String of Kudos» [Falls Church, Va.]: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Edition/Format: Article. Publication: ACSM bulletin. no. 221, (2006): 22.
  • Fischer, Irene K. 2005. Geodesy? what’s that?: my personal involvement in the age-old quest for the size and shape of the earth with a running commentary on life in a government research office. New York, N.Y.: IUniverse, Inc. ISBN 0-595-36399-7.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1998. «Earth, Size of.» In Good, G.S., ed. Sciences of the Earth: Encyclopedia of Events, People and Phenomena. Garland Publishing: New York. ISBN 081530062X.
  • Fischer, Irene K. 1981. «At the dawn of geodesy.» Bulletin Géodésique, 1981, Volume 55, Number 2, Page 132.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1979. «The Effect of the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge in Terms of Gravity Anomalies, Geoidal Undulations, and Deflections of the Vertical». Marine Geodesy. 2, no. 3: 215—237.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1977. «Mean Sea Level and the Marine Geoid—an Analysis of Concepts». Marine Geodesy. 1, no. 1: 37-59.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1977. «Does mean sea level slope up or down toward north?» Curitiba: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Geodésicas, 1977. Series: Boletim da Universidade Federal do Paraná; Geodésia (Curitiba, Brazil), no. 20.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1976. «Does Mean Sea Level Slope Up or Down Toward North?» Bulletin Géodésique. 50, no. 1: 79-80.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1977. «Marine Geodesy: A New Discipline or the Modem Realization of an Ancient Endeavor?» Marine Geodesy. 1, no. 2: 165—175.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1975. «The Figure of the Earth? Changes in Concepts». Geophysical Surveys. 2, no. 1: pages 3-54.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1974. «Deflections at Sea». Journal of Geophysical Research. 79, no. 14: pages 2123—2128.
  • Fischer, Irene. Deflections at Sea: Presented to the International Symposium on the Earth’s Gravitational Field and Secular Variations in Position, Sydney … 1973. Washington: Defense Mapping Agency, Topographic Center, 1973.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1972. The geoid; what’s that?: All you wanted to know. Defense Mapping School (Fort Belvoir, Va.) Publisher: Ft. Belvoir, Va. : Defense Mapping School, 1972. Series: Student pamphlet, 4M-710-E-010-010 / Defense Mapping School. Fischer, Irene. The Geoid: All You Wanted to Know. Ft. Belvoir, Va: Defense Mapping School, 1972.
  • Fischer, Irene, and Sandra Todd. A Refined Procedure for Computing Geodetic Distances from HIRAN Observations: Presented to the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington … 1971. Washington: U. S. Army Topographic Command, 1971. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union. Volume 54, number 4, pages 185—185.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1970. «El geoide sudamericano referido a varios sistemas de referencia.» Publisher: Buenos Aires [s.n.] 1970. Series: Publicación de la Comisión de Cartografía, n. 325.2. Spanish. «Separata de la Revista Cartográfica no. 18, año XVIII, 1969.»
  • Fischer, Irene. The Geoid in South America Refered [sic] to Various Reference Systems. Buenos Aires: Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, 1970. Paper Presented to the Xth Pan American Consultation on Cartography, Guatemala City 1965. Washington: Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 1969.
  • Fischer, Irene. The Development of the South American Datum 1969 (70-290). 1970. Papers from the 30th annual meeting [of the] American congress on surveying and mapping, …1970.
  • Fischer, Irene. New Pieces in the Picture Puzzle of an Astrogeodetic Geoid Map of the World. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Topographic Command, 1969. Presented to XI Pan American consultation on cartography, Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Washington, D.C., 1969.
  • United States, and Irene Fischer. New Pieces in the Picture Puzzle of an Astrogeodetic Geoid Map of the World. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Topographic Command, 1969.
  • Fischer, Irene. Investigations Concerning the Astrogeodetic Determination of the Geoid on a Common Datum, Combined with Gravimetric and Satellite Interpolations. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Topographic Command, 1969. «Presented to XI Pan American American Consultation on Cartography, Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Washington, D.C., 1969.» Summary in Spanish.
  • Fischer, Irene. Investigations Concerning the Astrogeodetic Determination of the Geoid on a Common Datum: Combined with Gravimetric and Satellite Interpolations : Paper Presented to XIVth General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Lucerne 1967. Washington, D.C: Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 1969.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1968. Modification of the Mercury Datum. Military Engineer. Volume 61, number 401, pages 191—193.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1968. GEOID DETERMINATIONS. ARMY MAP SERVICE WASHINGTON DC. Publisher: Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center JAN 1968. Edition/Format: Book : English [1]
  • Fischer, Irene. 1968, A modification of the Mercury datum. United States. Army Map Service. Publisher: Washington: Army Map Service, 1968. Series: United States.; Army Map Service.; Technical report.
  • Fischer, Irene. From Pythagoras to a Modification of the Mercury Datum (Fischer 1968). Washington, D.C: Army Map Service, 1968.
  • Fischer, Irene, Mary Slutsky, F. R. Shirley, and P. Y. Wyatt. 1968. «New Pieces in the Picture Puzzle of an Astrogeodetic Geoid Map of the World». Bulletin Géodésique. 88, no. 1: 199—221.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1967. «Geoid charts of North and Central America.» United States. Army Map Service.; et al. Washington, 1967. Series: United States.; Army Map Service.; Technical report. Abstract: The North American geoid map constructed by the Army Map Service in 1957 has been revised to accommodate accumulated new data. The procedure for constructing these three maps and the differences between them are explained. [2]
  • Fischer, Irene. 1967. Deviations of the geoid from an equilibrium figure: presented to the special study group no. 16 of section 5 of the international association of geodesy, Vienna … 1967.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1966. «Gravimetric interpolation of deflections of the vertical by electronic computer». Bulletin Géodésique. 81 (1): 267—275.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1966. «Slopes and Curvatures of the Geoid from Gravity Anomalies by Electronic Computer». Journal of Geophysical Research. 71 (20): 4909.
  • Fischer, Irene, Ray Shirley, and Philip Wyatt. 1966. «A Geoid Profile in North America from a Combination of Astrogeodetic and Gravimetric Data». Journal of Geophysical Research. 71 (20): 4917.
  • Fischer, Irene, and Mary Slutsky. 1966. Un estudio del geoide en Sud America. Pan American Institute of Geography and History.; Publicación no. 293 de la Comisión de cartografía.; Publicación (Pan American Institute of Geography and History), no. 293. «Separata de la Revista cartográfica no. 14, año 14, 1965.»
  • Fischer, Irene. 1966. «A Reviosion of the GOID Map of North America.» Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). Volume 71, number 20, pages 4905-4908.
  • Fischer, Irene and Mary Slutsky. 1965. «A study of the geoid in South America.» Army Map Service.; Pan American Institute of Geography and History. Washington, D.C.: The Service, [1965]. Irene Fischer, Mary Slutsky; presented to X Pan American Consultation of Cartography, Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Guatemala City, Guatemala, 1965 ; by Corps of Engineers, Army Map Service.
  • Fischer, Irene, and Dunstan Hayden. 1965. Geometry. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. And: Geometry. Teachers' supplement. and Geometry. Answer book. Allyn and Bacon. For Grades 9-12. by Irene Fischer and Dunstan Hayden.
  • Fischer, Irene and Mary Slutsky. 1964. «Conversion graphs for an astrogeodetic world datum.» United States. Army Map Service. Washington: Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Army Map Service, 1964. Series: United States.; Army Map Service.; Technical report. Cover title. Folded maps in pocket downgraded from confidential 11-5-65. Description: 17 pages: 3 fold. maps ; 27 cm.
  • Wilson, Donna. 1963. «Notes of Working Symposium on Solar System Constants, Feb 22-26, 1962.» Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. May 1963. 79 pages. Dr. Fischer added comments and notes.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1963. «The distance to the moon.» Philosophical Society of Washington (Washington, D.C.). Published by the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution, 1963. Series: Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, Vol. 16, no. 2.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1962. THE PARALLAX OF THE MOON IN TERMS OF A WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM. ARMY MAP SERVICE WASHINGTON D C. Publisher: Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center AUG 1962. DTIC Report Number: ADAAD0602535. Contents: The transit observations of mosting A, The geodetically computed distance between the observatories, Hansen’s value of mean parallax, The geometric parallax as referred to the astrogeodetic world datum, The dynamical parallax, The lunar distance from occultations, The lunar distance from radar measurements.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1962. «The Parallax of the Moon in Terms of a World Geodetic System.» Astronomical Journal. Volume 67, number 6, pages 373—378.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1962. Die gegenwärtige Ausdehnung des astronomisch-geodätisch bestimmten Geoids und das davon abgeleitete geodätische Weltdatum: Übers. von L. Kolb. Aus: Bulletin géodésique, 61, 1961, S.245-264. — EST: The present extent of the astro-geodetic geoid and the geodetic world datum derived from it (dt.).
  • Fischer, Irene. 1961. «The Present Extent of the Astro-Geodetic Geoid and the Geoid World Datum Derived from it.» Bulletin Geodesique. New Series, number 61, September 1, 1961.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1960. «A Map of Geoidal Contours in North America.» Bulletin Geodesique. Number 56, 1960.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1960. «An Astrogeodetic World Datum from Geoidal Heights Based on the Flattening f = 1/298.3». Journal of Geophysical Research. 65 (7).
  • Fischer, Irene. 1959. «The Impact of the Ice Age on the Present Form of the Geoid». Journal of Geophysical Research. 64 (1): 85-87.
  • Kaula, W. M. and Irene Fischer. 1959. US Army World Geodetic System 1959, Part I, Methods. Army Map Service Technical Reports 27. November 1959.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1959. «A Tentative World Datum from Geoidal Heights Based on the Hough Ellipsoid and the Columbus Geoid». Journal of Geophysical Research. 64 (1): 73-84.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1958. A TENTATIVE WORLD DATUM FROM GEOIDAL HEIGHTS. ARMY MAP SERVICE WASHINGTON D C. Publisher: Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center JUN 1958.
  • Fischer, Irene. 1954. «The deflection of the vertical in the Western and Central Mediterranean area». Bulletin Géodésique. 34 (1): 343—353.

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